had a small, but highly effective, artillery arm - the Royal
Artillery - that was exceedingly well trained, but suffered
from light guns and a lack of resources.
basic guns were 3-6 pounders, although 9-pounders became
available during the Peninsular
War (1808-1814), and the British found themselves at
a distinct disadvantage against French cannons.
much so, that the Duke of
Wellington forbade his gunners to engage in counter-battery
fire against the bigger French weapons and ordered them
to concentrate on firing on enemy troops.
anti-personnel bias of British artillery was boosted by
the invention of a fused spherical case-shot that was designed,
by General Sir Henry Shrapnel, to explode over the heads
of enemy troops and shower them with musketballs.
cannon barrels were brass, with the carriages, wheels and
limbers painted grey while metal pieces were black.
major British invention was the Congreve Rocket, which would
shoot a barrage of 12-pounder explosives in the general
(hopefully) direction of the enemy.
accuracy was not a major success with the rockets and although
they did see action in Spain and Portugal, as well as in
Germany, they were not viewed as being particularly useful.