The War of 1812 (3)

1812 to 1815

Map of Major Northern Campaigns

Seeking safety at Fort Erie, the Americans were besieged by the British for several months before they finally fought through the lines and escaped.

It was now time for the Americans to be on the back foot and, in 1814, two British expeditions now moved against the United States.

The first was a combined land-amphibious attack on Plattsburg, where some 14,000 veteran British troops pushed back fewer than 5000 American troops and militia.

General Sir John Prevost won the land encounter, but Britain's seaborne assault force was halted by the Americans and then forced to surrender. In danger of being cut off, Prevost withdrew.

The second was more successful and ended with the burning of the White House by British troops under General Robert Ross, who had landed at Chesapeake Bay with 5000 men.

Opposed by a larger force of militia at Bladensberg, the British veterans brushed past the Americans and headed for Washington.

On August 24, the symbol of American independence - the White House - along with other public buildings, was ablaze. American politicians weren't there to witness the scenes, having earlier fled.

Ross didn't enjoy the success for long, however, as during his follow-up invasion of Maryland, he was mortally wounded in a clash near Baltimore.

The successful American defence of Fort McHenry in 1814 inspired the lyrics of what would become the US national anthem The Star-Spangled Banner.

The final encounter of the sideshow war was at New Orleans, where an army of British veterans from the Peninsular War was spectacularly defeated by heavily entrenched American troops and militia under General Andrew Jackson.

The British commander, Sir Edward Pakenham, launched a frontal assault that was shattered by the accurate fire from Jackson's men.

Pakenham was mortally wounded and 2000 others killed or injured. The Americans are reported to have suffered only 13 casualties.

The War of 1812 achieved little, but did save Canada's independence. It was also a bloody turning point in Western affairs that eventually led to a strong bond between Britain and the United States.


Napoleon Bonaparte
Career Portraits
Quotes Family
Loves Letters
Plots Murdered?
His will Places
Era of Napoleon
Powers Opponents
Coalitions Allies
People Timelines
Key sites Shrapnel
Campaigns Battles
Armies Generals
Marshals Winners
Glossary Medical
Weapons 1812 War
Uniforms Battlefields
War at Sea
Naval War Heroes
Artworks Signals
Nelson Trafalgar
Key Maps Peninsula
Animated 1796/1800
1809 Russia
French Revolution
Revolution Guillotine
Posters People
Art, Film, Games
Education Goya
Sharpe Hornblower
Books Movies
DVDs Music
Wargames Images
Cartoons Caricatures
About Us Sources
Awards Sitemap
Links Militaria
Miniatures Reenactors
Forum Quizzes
Home Waterloo Diorama
Copyright Richard Moore 1999-2017 | Privacy Policy | Contact Us