and experienced commander, Jean-Baptiste Jourdan was known as "the
Anvil" by his detractors - "for having been beaten so often".
joined as a private in 1778 and served in the American Revolution,
before taking part in such battles as Jemappes,
and Wurzburg, after which he became
a member of the political elite Cinq-Cents.
to military life after illness, he fought and was beaten at Stockach.
became a marshal in 1804 and then went to Spain,
with Joseph Bonaparte, where he
was beaten again by Arthur Wellesley
at Talavera and Vitoria.
loss was particularly galling for the marshal, who had advised against
forcing the issue against the British - but was blamed for the disaster
turned his allegiance to the royals upon Bonaparte's abdication,
but returned to his former leader's side for the 100
Bonaparte's final fall, Jourdan was the president of the court that
sentenced his fellow marshal, Michel Ney,