Duc de Tarente
Scottish descent, Jacques Macdonald was the only marshal to win
his baton on the battlefield.
did so after destroying the Austrian centre at Wagram,
but was fortunate to have been given the opportunity - having offended
Napoleon Bonaparte with his vocal
defence of the branded-traitor Jean
took five years for the emperor to recall him to active duty, despite
Macdonald's fine military career that had begun in 1786.
aide to General Dumouriez, he fought at
Jemappes and, as a general of
brigade in 1793, was at Tourcoing
in Italy saw him the victor at Modena before returning to Germany
where he was deputy to Moreau.
Wagram, Macdonald served in Spain,
and the defence of France.
battle honours included Lutzen,
Leipzig, where he was almost taken
by the enemy, and Hanau.
pushed for Bonaparte's abdication and was one of France's leading
figures in negotiating peace with the Allies.
Bonaparte's return, he helped Louis XVIII flee France and did not
join his former leader despite the emperor's requests.