Population: 29 million
almost bankrupt France was thrown into revolution
by the lack of opportunity and freedoms for the non-nobility.
it began to export its brand of civil unrest, republican
France loomed as a threat to the other established monarchies
execution of Louis XVI
and his queen Marie-Antoinette
brought stronger reactions and France was unsuccessfully
of internal and foreign turmoil followed until the rise
of Napoleon Bonaparte,
who re-established reason and control within France. He
introduced major reforms to civil administration justice
and weakened the power of the Church.
was one of his major platforms, so was social justice and
many of his laws still are the centrepieces of European
the threat to other dynasties still existed and after many
attempts they finally defeated an exhausted empror and his
Following the Bonaparte years, the previous Bourbon rulers
returned with Louis XVIII taking the crown.
having tasted freedom, the French people did not tolerate
autocratic rule for long.