of Britain's most experienced leaders, Richard Howe joined
the Royal Navy at the age of 13 and fought in the Pacific,
during the war of Austrian Succession, the Jacobite Rebellion,
the Seven Years War and the American Revolution.
became a Lord of the Admiralty, but resigned following political
disagreements, was Treasurer of the Navy for a period and
returned to active service to lead the Channel Fleet in
that role he set about relieving the two-year siege of the
vital fortress of Gibraltar and when the hostilities ended
he rose to First Lord of the Admiralty.
whose dark complexion earned him the nickname Black Dick,
is credited with perfecting the Royal Navy's signal system.
In 1794 he won the battle of the Glorious First of June.
he retired in 1797 he had risen to Admiral of the Fleet.
last major contribution to British naval history came that
same year when he was a key element in solving the potentially
disastrous mutinies at Spithead
and The Nore.
brother was William, Viscount Howe, who commanded the British
army during the War of American Independence.