Duc de Raguse
artillery officer, Auguste Marmont fought at Toulon
and Mainz, before becoming an aide to Napoleon
Bonaparte for the 1796 campaign
years later he went to Egypt and
was promoted to general of brigade for his courage in Malta. He
served at Alexandria and the Pyramids
and was in the party of loyal followers who returned to France with
artillery skills helped win the day at Marengo,
for which he was promoted to general of division.
was put out by not being made a marshal in 1804, but a year later
was given command of II Corps, fighting with it at Ulm.
to Italy and Dalmatia, Marmont earned the title Duke of Ragusa by
forcing a Russian army away from that city.
the 1809 campaign along the Danube
he was held in reserve at Wagram
and was sent in pursuit of the retreating Austrians. He caught them
at Znaim, but they counterattacked
in strength and Marmont found himself in desperate trouble. It was
only the arrival of major French reinforcements that saved him.
Despite the battle, he was finally given his marshalcy.
1811, he took command of the Army of Portugal and the following
year pushed Wellington's talents to the full by halting the British
push into northern Spain. However, that may have led to an overconfidence
that was smashed at Salamanca.
wounded, Marmont did not return to active service until the 1813
Campaign,where he fought at Lutzen,
Leipzig and Hanau.
fighting retreat during the 1814
defence of France ended badly when he was criticised by Bonaparte
for losing the battle at Laon.
the Allies closed on Montmartre, Marmont - together with marshals
Mortier and Moncey
- had talks with the enemy and he surrendered his force.
stayed loyal to Louis XVIII during the
100 Days' Campaign and, following Waterloo,
voted to execute Marshal Ney.
after the 1830 revolution, the Duke of Ragusa travelled Europe unable
to return to his country where the verb raguser had been coined
to mean betray.